In the past 20 years, the world of higher education and research has experienced an unprecedented series of reforms. Through an empirical survey based on interviews, archives and observation, his book presents the portrait of the academics who reform the standards of the scientific profession, within a new body of scientific evaluation, the AERES. What knowledge do they use to produce new evaluation criteria? To what extent do these standards redefine what "doing research" means today? What challenges do these transformations pose in the humanities and social sciences? Entering behinfd the scenes of a disputed agency, this book sheds a new light on the contemporary transformations of the government of the scientific world, while illuminating the debates on science, its place and its value in our society. It is intended for academics who are interested in the sociology of science, public policy or professions, but also more broadly for students and scientists who wonder about the evaluation instruments with which they have to compose every day in their work.