Studies focusing on labwork role were deeply explored during these last decades in several countries in Europe. Recently, the institutional context evolved. In fact, inquiry based science education (IBSE) was generalized in primary and secondary schools in Europe. In the same time, new technological possibilities appear that modify scientists experimental practices, with virtual experimentations and numerical assisted manipulations. Due to these recent evolutions it is relevant to think about actual and new problematics in science education related to experimental approach. International studies in science education are specifically focused on articulation between IBSE and experimental approach. The proposals included in this theme issue address the possible forms of empirical referent and the role of practical activities in science education learning. Another point study is the appropriation of the experimental approach by the students. Then the epistemological statute of the experiment in science teaching and its influence on teachers' action is also an important aspect of this issue.