In the classwork, as it is ordinary structured, we know how important are the exercises, namely the didactic approach based on various mediums (which are often textual), that involves an identified knowledge or know-how and can result in precise, material and cognitive activities of the pupils. Whether it concerns the discovery, the deepening or the evaluation of teaching contents, the exercises seem inherent in didactic practice, and make them a recurrent object of ordinary discourses about school. However, there are not a lot of studies about that topic in the field of didactics of French tongue, probably because of a critical tradition of didactics with regard to the exercises, but also because other terms have been prefered in the didactic studies. But the absence of a systematic theoretical understanding of the exercises does not prevent that they resist and persist in the practices, as well in the representations and the discourse of the various actors of education as in the textbooks and in the classrooms. This issue of Repères aims a better understanding of what is meant by exercice in the French tongue classroom, in primary and lower secondary education. More precisely, the matter is to identify what can be the didactic approach to the exercise, which can not be treated independently of the involved contents.